Close this search box.

Drawing upon well-established labor economics theory and methodologies and the principles of statistics, we provide companies and law firms with rigorous, customized workplace studies and careful, experienced litigation consulting.

We help identify, address, and solve employment equity issues within the workplace. From representation, compensation, performance evaluation, and promotion to diversity and inclusion, hiring and retention, or termination, the Data for Decisions team is on hand to help you make your workplace better and fairer.

Our Labor & Employment Services Include:

We perform sophisticated statistical analysis for both class-action claims and individual plaintiff cases, involving allegations of discrimination in hiring, compensation, performance assessment, promotion, termination, and reductions in force. We have been retained in cases involving allegations of discrimination based on age, gender, race/ethnicity, and intersectional categories. We have experience with cases involving the Equal Pay Act of 1963, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, and several state statutes.

We provide support through all phases of litigation, mediation, and arbitration, including pre-trial discovery, trial strategy, class certification, liability determination, determination of economic damages, rendering of expert reports and rebuttal reports, deposition and cross-examination, and expert testimony. We also provide support in settlement negotiations.

In our litigation, mediation, and arbitration work, we:

  • Emphasize understanding our clients’ institutional and economic situation (as characterized by their human resource structure, decision-making processes, labor markets, and product markets) and ensure that our models reflect these realities
  • Are known for our careful preparation of complex data, including the marriage of human resource data with payroll data and historical files
  • Provide rigorous, creative, and informative analyses using the latest tools and techniques from labor economics and statistics
  • Communicate our analysis and results so that they are easily understood by clients, arbitrators, mediators, judges, and jurors
  • Are involved in every stage of the project, from data preparation to report writing

Representative Work:

  • Retained as testifying experts on behalf of the defendant, a leading professional services company, in a class action lawsuit alleging gender discrimination in pay and promotion, resulting in class decertification.
  • Conducted analysis on behalf of the defendant, a Fortune 500 consumer goods company, in a class action lawsuit alleging race discrimination in performance and compensation systems, resulting in a favorable settlement.
  • Retained as testifying experts on behalf of the defendant, a leading public relations and advertising company, in a class action lawsuit alleging gender discrimination in pay, resulting in class decertification.
  • Retained as testifying experts on behalf of the defendant, a large wholesale manufacturing company, in a class action lawsuit alleging gender discrimination in hiring, resulting in summary judgment in favor of the defendant.
  • Retained as testifying experts on behalf of the defendant, a Fortune 100 technology company, in a single plaintiff case alleging age discrimination in termination.

We assist corporations, government agencies, and nonprofit organizations in proactively studying their workforce from a diversity and equity perspective. We partner with our clients to design studies to address their most pressing diversity, equity, and inclusion (DE&I) concerns and inform company decisions and actions at the executive team and board level. Our analyses and advice ensure our clients are at the forefront of DE&I initiatives and thinking.

We have considerable experience both in conducting representation and pay equity studies from a gender, race, or age perspective, and in examining associated hiring, retention, performance evaluation, promotion, and termination practices and policies. We have expertise in using publicly available data to conduct representation benchmarking studies that compare clients’ workforce representation with relevant labor markets. We also have a streamlined and sophisticated proprietary approach to preparing individualized pay adjustments and comprehensive pay remediation solutions.

While our studies may be viewed as a tool to help our clients mitigate the future risk of a government audit or employment-related litigation, clients also engage us because they are keen to “do the right thing.” To this end, clients often engage us to repeat these studies periodically and assist in their ongoing efforts to promote the well-being of their employees.

Representative Work:

  • Conducted gender and race representation studies, along with benchmarking of representation to national and local labor markets, for a Fortune 100 finance and technology company. Also analyzed the company’s performance system, its retention and attrition, and its pay equity; produced recommendations for pay remediation; and were involved in briefings to the board and the executive team.
  • Created a comprehensive DE&I report card with respect to gender and race for an insurance company, including pay equity and representation of incumbent employees, and the contribution of hiring rates, attrition rates, and promotion rates to the representation pattern. Also conducted an audit of job applications to assess representation in the qualified applicant pool.
  • Conducted annual pay equity analysis with respect to race and gender for a global consumer goods company. Advised executive team and made recommendations for pay remediation that were successfully implemented.

We often work with legal counsel on cases in which the client company is facing an audit or investigation by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL). In these cases, we analyze company-provided data to establish if a statistical basis exists for the DOL’s concerns and help prepare appropriate responses. We also assist companies in instituting DOL-mandated human resource system improvements.

Representative Work:

  • Retained as economic experts on behalf of the defendant, a Fortune 100 telecommunications company, facing an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) suit alleging age discrimination in re-hiring, resulting in the EEOC withdrawing its suit.
  • Retained as economic experts on behalf of the defendant, a large technology company, facing an EEOC suit alleging age discrimination in termination, resulting in a favorable settlement.
  • Retained as economic experts on behalf of the defendant, a large hospital system, facing an EEOC suit alleging race discrimination in hiring, resulting in a favorable settlement.

We are experts in the valuation of losses suffered by families due to the wrongful death of a family member. Our analysis considers the full economic impact of the death to the family or estate of the decedent. Areas of economic loss may include loss of wages, fringe benefits, and household services. The decedent’s work-life expectancy, real growth in earnings, level of education, and lifetime earnings trajectory are just some of the factors we consider. We are proud of our ability to collect all relevant data through comprehensive research into case-specific details. Our methodology is state-of-the-art, and our valuation team always includes a forensic accountant and a demographer with actuarial skills.

Representative Work:

  • Retained as economic experts on behalf of the defendant to estimate the economic loss associated with the death of a U.S. citizen living overseas with a complicated earnings and asset profile, resulting in a favorable settlement.
  • Retained as testifying experts on behalf of the defendant, an aircraft manufacturing company, in a wrongful death suit; prepared and presented an estimate of economic loss at trial, resulting in a jury verdict in favor of the defendant.

David Kantor, Senior Data Scientist

David Kantor has advanced degrees in mathematics and computer science and more than 30 years of experience in programming and systems analysis. He specializes in Stata programming, is an active member of the Stata User’s Group, and has developed numerous proprietary programs in Stata. He also has extensive experience working with U.S. Census Data and Current Population Survey Data, in the contexts of both research and economic valuation. With tremendous attention to programming accuracy and elegance, David brings vital skills to both the labor & employment and life sciences practices at Data for Decisions.

In his spare time, he enjoys woodworking, playing and arranging music, bike riding, and keeping his 150-year-old house going.

Daniel Tortorice, Senior Economist

Daniel Tortorice is an associate professor of economics at the College of the Holy Cross. Dan received his Ph.D. from Harvard University, where he wrote his thesis on expectations and unemployment in macroeconomic models. With ongoing research in dynamic macroeconomic modeling, finance, and vaccine research and development, Dan brings vital macroeconomic, modeling, and data analysis expertise to the life sciences practice at Data for Decisions.

In his spare time, he enjoys coaching his son’s little league teams and walking his Labradoodle, Rhody.

Younghwan Song, Senior Economist

Younghwan Song is a professor of economics at Union College. Younghwan received his Ph.D. from Columbia University, where he trained and wrote his thesis in labor economics. With ongoing research and several publications in topics surrounding the U.S. labor market, Younghwan brings a deep understanding of labor economics to the labor & employment practice at Data for Decisions. He also has econometric and statistical expertise that is invaluable to the work done in the life sciences practice.

In his spare time, he enjoys playing tennis and golf with his son.

Daria Burnes, Senior Economist

Daria Burnes earned a Ph.D. in economics at the University of California, Irvine, where she specialized in labor, urban, and public economics. Daria joined Data for Decisions after spending many years working on wage and hour disputes, discrimination class action lawsuits, pay equity studies, merger reviews, price-fixing class action lawsuits, and exclusionary vertical agreements. Daria brings strong expertise in economic modeling and statistical analysis to her work with both the labor & employment and life sciences practices at Data for Decisions.

In her spare time, she enjoys ballet barre and refining her yoga practice.

Ronan Arthur, Senior Modeler, Life Sciences

Ronan Arthur is a postdoctoral research fellow in both the School of Medicine and the biology department at Stanford University. He received his Ph.D. from Stanford, where he wrote his dissertation on trust and behavior change during the West Africa Ebola epidemic of 2014 and infectious disease modeling for endogenous behavioral responses during epidemics. Ronan brings important infectious disease modeling and complex systems expertise to the life sciences team.

In his spare time, he enjoys studying the craft of filmmaking.

Lakshmi Reddy Bloom, Founder & CEO

Lakshmi Bloom has more than 30 years of experience in survey design and analysis, human resource information systems, and economic modeling. She specializes in collecting and processing quantitative and qualitative data for policy analysis, executive decision-making, and employment-related litigation. Her strength lies in her ability to bridge the divide between data and decision-making, something she credits to the analytical yet policy-oriented graduate training she received at Princeton University’s School of Public and International Affairs. Lakshmi enjoys an ongoing collaboration with her husband David and works with him on endeavors in both the labor & employment and life sciences practices at Data for Decisions.

Lakshmi loves being a first-time grandmother and looks forward to reigniting her love of travel post-pandemic.

David E. Bloom, Senior Consultant, Testifying Expert

David E. Bloom is the Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and Demography at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). David is also faculty director of HSPH’s Value of Vaccination Research Network and a founding co-editor of Elsevier’s Journal of the Economics of Ageing. He received a B.S. in industrial and labor relations from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in economics and demography from Princeton University. David has worked extensively in the areas of labor, population, and health economics and has served as a testifying expert and senior consultant for Data for Decisions for more than 10 years. He has taught numerous courses on labor, health, population, and statistics and econometrics at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. David is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an Andrew Carnegie Fellow of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and a research associate/fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Center for Economic Policy Research, and IZA – The Institute of Labor Economics. He has published more than 500 articles, book chapters, and books.

In his spare time, he enjoys being “Thatha” to his new grandson and an amateur mixologist.

Erin Johnson, Senior Economist/Practice Leader, Labor & Employment

Erin Johnson holds a Ph.D. in economics from UC Berkeley, where her fields were labor economics, public finance, and econometrics. Prior to joining Data for Decisions, Erin was an assistant professor in the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a lecturer in the Economics Department of Wellesley College, and a management consultant at Boston Consulting Group. In her research, Erin used large datasets to address questions at the intersection of health policy and labor economics, and she brings this expertise to her work at Data for Decisions. A clear thinker and communicator, with outstanding labor economics and econometrics skills, Erin excels in her role as leader for the labor & employment practice.

In her spare time, she enjoys spending time with her three kids and hiking with her dogs.

JP Sevilla, Senior Economist/Practice Leader, Life Sciences

JP Sevilla earned a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard University, and a J.D. from George Mason University. He is a member of the DC Bar and a research associate at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health. Before joining Data for Decisions, JP was an assistant professor at the Harvard School of Public Health, and an ethics fellow at the Harvard Law School. His expertise and interests are in the economic and normative aspects of global health; cost-benefit analysis; public sector priority-setting, law, and economics; and applied econometrics and microeconomics. Creativity, clarity, and rigor are JP’s hallmarks, which he brings fully to his role as a leader for the life sciences practice.

In his spare time, he enjoys vegan cooking and watching films that his colleagues refer to as “obscure.”

Joe Grimaldo, CFO & Forensic Accountant

Joe Grimaldo has been a partner with the Massachusetts accounting firm of O’Connor, Maloney & Company for more than 25 years. He has a broad range of accounting experience, including business valuation, tax return preparation on the individual and corporate level, audit work, estate planning, and forecasting for corporate finance transactions. In addition to serving as chief financial officer at Data for Decisions, Joe contributes his outstanding forensic accounting expertise to the economic valuation component of the labor & employment practice.

In his spare time, he enjoys spending time with his family at their
home on Cape Cod and serving on several for-profit and non-profit